Sunday, February 10, 2019

Battery-Powered Security Cameras

Battery-Powered Security Cameras

Before you buy a battery powered outdoor security camera, you need to figure out what feature matters to you and what doesn’t, what’s the ideal location to place a wire free battery CCTV security camera, how to protect it from vandalism, etc. Read this post to find all the answers and make your decision much easier.
If you’ve got some ideas you want to share or any problems about wireless battery powered outdoor security cameras, leave your comment below. 

How to Choose the Battery Powered Security Cameras
Below we list several important factors you should check out before buying a battery powered security camera. And in case we miss something you care about, leave a comment below to share your ideas!

1. IP Rating & Working Temperature
Just as the name implies, the battery powered outdoor security IP cameras are designated for outdoor purpose. In order to withstand various harsh weather conditions, it is a must-have feature for them to be rainproof and weather resistant.

The IP rating, a two-digit number, is used to how a battery-operated outdoor wireless security camera can be protected against solid objects and liquids, like the rain, dirt, etc.

IP 65 is currently the highest standard of weatherproof battery powered Wi-Fi surveillance cameras.
Yet not all wireless battery operated wireless outdoor security cameras in the market can reach that. Reolink Argus® Pro and Reolink Argus® 2 are just the IP65-certified weatherproof battery powered wireless security IP cameras and can brave all the elements.

Note that the operating temperature actually refers to the wireless battery outdoor security cameras’ starting temperature.

What that means, in a nutshell, is that once the battery powered outdoor WiFi cameras are activated and heated, they can continue to work in cold extremes.

2. Night Vision of Wireless Battery Operated Outdoor Security Cameras
I bet no one expects to get fuzzy pictures from a heavily-invested battery powered outdoor security camera.
The battery powered WiFi outdoor security IP cameras with great night vision can not only provide a peek at what really goes bump at night, but also help you discern faces and objects in dark situations.
And now some high-end wireless battery operated outdoor security cameras, like Reolink Argus® 2, are even featured with starlight night vision in virtue of the advanced Sony CMOS sensors. So you can see the objects in real color at night and identify human clothing or other details from afar, say 33 feet away.

3. WDR Function of Battery Powered CCTV Security Cameras
Intend to put up a wireless battery operated outdoor security camera in environments with a sharp contrast of lighting (also called wide dynamic range)?

That’s when the battery powered outdoor security cameras with WDR ability should top your wish list, which provides an effective solution in the challenging lighting scenarios.

They can tackle scenes with varying light and harsh lighting conditions, and offer near perfect exposure in both bright and dark areas simultaneously.

When the detail and visibility are needed for outdoor areas, the role of WDR function becomes more prominent for battery powered Wi-Fi outdoor security IP cameras.

4. Wi-Fi Range of Battery Powered Outdoor Security Cameras
Though the wireless battery powered outdoor CCTV security cameras offer you flexible placement, at least you should place them within the Wi-Fi coverage for normal work.
Also, check the Wi-Fi distance of battery powered wireless outdoor security camera systems and see whether it applies to your situation.

For the battery powered long range wireless security cameras which transmit data over the traditional 2.4Ghz Wi-Fi or 5Ghz Wi-Fi network, the Wi-Fi connection is required if you want to view the video remotely.

But worry not if the battery powered security cameras have no WiFi and power!

Thanks to the 4G security cameras that operate on the 4G/3G mobile network, you can now also monitor the places where Wi-Fi connection and electric power are not available.

Take the 4G/3G battery powered outdoor security camera Reolink Go for example, it provides an ideal security solution for areas without WiFi network, such as your barns, farms, boats, docks, construction sites, vacation home, etc. And you can also watch the live feed anywhere & anytime on your Smartphone.

5. Battery Life of Wire Free Battery Powered Outdoor Wi-Fi Cameras
Battery life is always an important factor for you to consider when it comes to selecting battery powered outdoor wireless security cameras and systems.

To avoid frequent battery change (or charge) and reduce your cost, choose the battery powered outdoor Wi-Fi surveillance cameras with rechargeable batteries and longer battery life.
But how do you know if the battery power is running low, as you may ask.

Well, most battery-operated outdoor wireless security cameras would send you low-battery notifications when the battery capacity reaches a certain low value, say, 10%, to avoid the batteries dead without your conscious.

And those wireless battery operated outdoor security cameras with flexible powering options are even far more reliable.

For example, it can get non-stop power from the rechargeable battery (comes with the camera) and Reolink solar panel (sold separately), which is quite cost-effective and eco-friendly.

6. Security Level of Battery Powered Wireless Outdoor Security Cameras
There are basically two ways to install the wireless battery powered outdoor security cameras, either to place it on a magnetic base or to an outdoor security mount.

To make your battery powered outdoor CCTV security cameras indestructible, the latter installation is more recommended and you won’t have to worry about someone walking off with the wireless battery operated outdoor security cameras.

Besides, you need to allow for the security level of battery powered outdoor wireless security IP cameras and systems. Ask the security providers what major enabled security settings are provided.
For example, the battery-operated outdoor wireless security cameras Reolink Argus® Pro and Reolink Argus® 2 offer multi-level security features, including SSL encryption, WPA2-AES encryption, and SSL-TLS enabled to prevent prying eyes.

7. Free and Customized App
Now most of battery powered outdoor security cameras comes with a free and customized app provided by the camera sellers, which excels the third-party app in both price and performance.
Any adjustment you want to make of your wireless battery operated outdoor security cameras, like adjusting the motion sensitivity, enabling push notifications, can be simply done via the app on your Smartphone.

Also, you can manage more than one battery operated outdoor surveillance cameras on the same app, making it an easy task to keep tabs on multiple places simultaneously.

As the rule of thumb, the sellers would release new app versions on a regular basis to unlock new features of battery powered outdoor IP cameras.

So it is recommended that you upgrade your app to the latest in order to get the most of your battery powered outdoor Wi-Fi security cameras.

8. SD Card Storage of Battery Outdoor CCTV Security Cameras
“I am searching for a battery-operated outdoor security camera that does not require a subscription or any sort of cloud-based service from the manufacturer.”

Same as your needs?
Then you should consider buying the battery outdoor security cameras with SD card (slot) for local storage, requiring no contract or monthly subscription fees.

And the footage is also kept safe from possible snooping risks online. So you can rest assured that your personal privacy can be better secured.

Note: In addition to these features, the battery operated outdoor WiFi security camera with smartphone App, memory card for self storage, smart motion detection and remote access are also important factors. 

What Type of Battery Does Reolink Argus Wire-Free Security Camera Use.
Reolink Keen wireless battery-operated security camera and Reolink Argus wireless battery-powered outdoor security camerawork with four non-rechargeable CR123A (3V) batteries or four CR123A rechargeable batteries (3.6V~4.2V).

It’s advised to use CR123A batteries manufactured by reputable manufacturers like Panasonic, Energizer, GP or Duracell.
Arlo Wire Free camera runs on four CR123 lithium 3-volt photo batteries supplied with Arlo Wire-Free cameras or Tenergy Li-Ion RCR123A 3.7V 650mAh rechargeable batteries specifically marked “Works with Arlo”, according to NETGEAR Arlo.

It’s also suggested by NETGEAR Arlo support to use non-rechargeable batteries from other high quality and well-known manufacturers such as Panasonic, Energizer, or Duracell.

While Arlo Go can only run on rechargeable batteries that came with Arlo Go cameras or replacement Arlo Go batteries from NETGEAR.

How to Buy Battery Replacement for Your Security Cameras

Tip 1. Know the Battery Type
Different battery-operated security cameras run on different types of batteries, some only support non-rechargeable batteries while some support both non-rechargeable and rechargeable batteries, such as Reolink Argus.

Tip 2. Choose Battery Voltage Properly
The voltage of battery should match that of battery-operated security cameras; otherwise, it could damage or degrade your battery-operated security cameras. For example, Reolink Argus battery-powered security camera works with non-rechargeable lithium CR123A (3V) battery and CR123A rechargeable lithium battery (3.6V~4.2V).

Tip 3. Choose Right Size Battery
One more thing to bear in mind, choose batteries that fit the compartment, not too small or too big to fit in.

Where to Buy Battery Replacement for Your Battery-Operated Security Cameras
It’s really important to purchase batteries from trusted suppliers such as Tenergy, Panasonic, GP, and Streamlight. Users could purchase non-rechargeable or rechargeable batteries for your wireless battery security cameras from Amazon, Best Buy, and Wal-Mart.

Ordering batteries in bulk could save you a bundle in the long run.

Meanwhile, it’s always to consult camera manufacturers in advance if you want to use rechargeable batteries for your battery security cameras.

Placement of Battery Operated Security Cameras
It is important for you to place the wireless battery operated security cameras in the right and appropriate positions.

Tip 1: Choose the Proper Height to Install Battery Outdoor Security Cameras
Placing the battery operated outdoor security cameras too high may disable you to see details. Head height is best to capture the face of an intruder.

So make sure that the battery powered Wi-Fi outdoor security camera is high enough to be out of reach but low enough to capture the intruder’s face.

Tip 2: Avoid Direct Sunlight on Battery Powered Outdoor Security Cameras
Do not place the battery powered outdoor security cameras and systems directly into the sun, otherwise the sunlight will cause stripes in images.

Also, remember to position the wireless battery operated outdoor security cameras at an angle to avoid backlight from windows and doors.

Tip 3: Evaluate the Most Vulnerable Places
Before installing battery powered outdoor Wi-Fi security cameras, you need to think about where the most vulnerable places are for people to break in.

According to the home burglary statistics, the main entrances, front/back porch, garage, backyard, off-street windows and side-gate are the top places for you to place wireless battery operated outdoor CCTV security cameras.

Tip 4: Install Battery-Operated Outdoor Wireless Security Cameras in Sheltered Locations
This can not only provide additional protection for outdoor battery operated high definition security cameras from rain, snow, or hail, but also help keep the camera lens clean from any moisture or residue.

Tip 5: Place Battery Powered Outdoor Security Cameras in Discreet Places with Coverings
Placing your battery powered outdoor security cameras in a not-so-obvious location with coverings is also a good method to protect them from vandals or thefts.

An artificial plant, an outdoor low voltage lighting fixture and the bushes are all discreet locations to hide your battery operated outdoor wireless security cameras.

Protect Battery Powered Security Cameras from Vandals or Thefts
“If my battery powered outdoor security cameras are vandalized by the naughty neighbor kids or even stolen by the prowlers?”
This might be a problem that bothers most users of battery powered outdoor security cameras and systems. And here are some proactive tips to protect your battery operated outdoor wireless security cameras from vandals and thefts.

1. Place Outdoor Battery CCTV Security Cameras to Sturdy Mounts
As it is mentioned above, placing the battery powered outdoor security cameras to sturdy mounts is more secure than to the magnetic base. It takes more time and efforts for the thieves to steal and they will have to think twice before their evil action.

2. Position Battery Powered Outdoor Security IP Cameras Beyond Reach
Positioning the outdoor battery operated high definition security cameras beyond reach can effectively avoid the naughty kids tampering with your cameras. It can also reduce the chance for the thieves to walk away with your battery powered wireless outdoor security cameras.

Don’t Miss: Tired of all the trouble you have to go through when you need to change the batteries of your battery operated outdoor wireless security camera, especially if the camera is placed out of easy reach?

The solar powered & battery powered outdoor security camera Reolink Argus® Pro and Reolink Argus® 2can free you from such annoyance by providing continuous power from the solar panel and a rechargeable battery. So you no longer need to exhaust much effort to access your hard-to-reach cameras frequently.

3. Add a Tough Protective Housing for Wireless Battery Operated Outdoor Security Cameras
A tough protective housing/skin is helpful to protect your battery powered external WiFi security IP camera from vandalism.

Besides, it can make your battery powered wireless outdoor security camera blend into the external environment, thus others won’t easily notice its existence.

Reolink, for example, intends to offer UV- and water-resistant silicone protective skins for its battery powered outdoor security camera Reolink Argus® 2, so that the camera can blend in the color of the wall, ceiling or any surface it is mounted to.

Top 5 Battery Powered Wireless Outdoor Security Cameras in 2018

Questions May In Your Mind
Below we’ve collected some common questions you may ask about the battery-operated outdoor wireless security cameras. And please feel free to comment below if you have more to ask.

1. How to Make Your Wireless Battery Powered Outdoor Security Cameras Unobtrusive or Noticeable
“I live in a strict HOA community (homeowner association). What’s the best battery powered external security camera that could be hidden outdoors?”
“To me, I want a thief to look at my battery operated outdoor security camera and say “oh crap a security camera”. So they would have to think twice before breaking into my house.”

Whether you prefer a low-profile or noticeable Wi-Fi battery powered outdoor CCTV security camera, the installation location, in some ways, is a non-ignorable and even decisive factor.

To make your wireless battery powered security cameras unobtrusive outdoors, you may refer to the tips above to hide them in discreet places

2. Can the Battery-Operated Outdoor Wireless Security Cameras Be Turned Off When Someone Is at the Location?
Definitely yes!

When the motion detection of your battery powered outdoor security cameras is not needed or desired, you may disable the PIR motion sensor via the app on your Smartphone. In this way, it can also greatly optimize the power consumption of your battery powered outdoor security cameras.

3. How to Install Battery Powered Outdoor Security Cameras and Can You Do It On Your Own (DYO)
One of the biggest advantages of battery powered outdoor security cameras is that they are 100% wire-free.

So you don’t need to hire professionals to run the messy cables. Simply insert the battery into your battery operated wireless outdoor security camera and connect it to your WiFi network.

When your security needs have changed, you can also easily take away your battery powered WiFi security cameras and reposition them in a new site, all of which can be completed by yourself even you are not a tech savvy. 

4. How Close Does the Wireless Battery Operated Outdoor Security Camera Need to Be Placed to the Wi-Fi for Normal Work
It largely depends on which battery-operated outdoor wireless security camera you choose and location where you place the camera.

For Reolink battery powered wireless outdoor security cameras, the WiFi distance is about 70-80 meters (210-240 feet) in open areas without any obstacles.

And when you place the battery powered WiFi security cameras indoors with 2 walls in between, the Wi-Fi distance can reach about 20 meters (60 feet).

Note that the real distance varies with your environment. And the key point is to place your wireless battery powered security cameras close to your router as possible, so that you can have stable WiFi signals.

5. Are Reolink Security Camera's Protected Against Against Reinstallation Attack.
All of Reolink security cameras are secured by enabling multi-level security features, including SSL encryption, WPA2-AES encryption, and SSL-TLS enabled.

6. Do All Cameras’ Capture Audio Too? The Sample Video With Rain Has Audio While The Night Vision Video Did Not.
Yes, Reolink Argus supports audio recording. You can also disable it based on your needs in the camera settings. That's why the night vision sample video has no audio.

7. Can You Set Up Off-Grid Security Cameras If There Is No Network & Cellular Service Coverage?
If there is no network connection or cellular service available in your installation spots, you can also store the recordings off-grid security cameras locally to SD cards. However, without network connection, you will sacrifice some of the features like remote viewing and instant alerts.

Mind that the recording stored at the SD cards will hit the upper limits and previous recordings can be overwritten. To better save the recordings, you can back up the recordings by copying them to your computers or Cloud from time to time.

Ref: Thanks to Ms. Jenny Hu. She is an editor from Reolink. 

Saturday, January 26, 2019

CCTV Control Room Operator selection - A best practice guide

CCTV Control Room Operator selection - A best practice guide
By Arindam Bhadra
A doctor; a teacher; an environmentalist. There is one common motivation why you would choose one of these careers: to help people. But there’s one more career that sits in the background and doesn’t get as much limelight as it probably deserves.

BS EN 50132-7: 2012 and BS EN 62676-4 clause 12.1 state: “If the CCTV (closed circuit television) system has a requirement for live viewing, camera control, system management, or any other human intensive tasks, a control room should be specified to house these functions. The ‘control room’ could be a single workstation, or a large operations centre.” The effectiveness of Video surveillance / CCTV control rooms is influenced by a variety of factors. CCTV operators are usually technology buffs who love the technological side of Video surveillance systems. CCTV operators at CCTV Control Room face several issues ranging from poor attention span, video blindness, fatigue, boredom, lack of situational awareness, bias and false alerts. There is, however, another side to the CCTV Video surveillance sector that the world desperately needs. Keeping people safe from harm and maintaining order in our society has become a lot easier as CCTV technology advances. However, the ‘human factor’ within the CCTV system is equally as important in achieving the objectives of the CCTV function. The capacity of the person selected in any job will determine the success of that person in the position, no matter what kind of environment it is. I’ve heard it mentioned that CCTV is as simple as watching TV, including by a senior police officer in the India who should have known better. Similarly, the placement of contract guards into CCTV positions when they have received no training and don’t know what to look for is also common. Where detection is critical will know that the operator is the most essential part in CCTV service delivery. "Cameras never lie". but, how will you know? ‘see’ what the cameras ‘saw'. Do audit your CCTV–why suffer? The CCTV Control room should be set up, or redesigned, according to a CCTV operational requirements plan and the CCTV room staff, as end-users, should participate in this process. BS EN ISO 11064-1 says Ergonomic design of control centers Principles for the design of control centers.
A CCTV video footage auditor can be defined as one who audits, reviews, examines closely, CCTV footage daily, at periodical intervals, with an intent to discover the ‘unknown’. Using all the tools available at her/his disposal, she/he ‘looks out’ for exceptions, process violations, abnormalities, performance lapses, behavioral patterns, potential threats, risks and so on. She/he de-bugs bytes of visual information multi-tasks by comparing past cases. ‘Auditing’ means 'seeing' what the cameras 'saw'. CCTV video footage should be audited daily; several times a day if need be. Depending on the requirements, auditing of CCTV footage of critical cameras on a daily basis must become an SOP.

“The capacity of the person selected in any job will determine the success of that person.” Says Mr. Shankar Mallik, Director - Uma Enterprise. Leading System integrator Security Automation field.
Selection of CCTV operators
The selection of CCTV operators should follow a formal process and be based on a sound analysis of the job tasks. It is acknowledged that in some cases CCTV operators are selected and employed by third party contractors. Nevertheless, there may still be opportunities for CCTV managers to influence the appointment and training of these individuals.
Selecting the right people for the CCTV operator role will help to maximize the motivation and job performance of the operator team. Within larger organizations the recruitment and selection of personnel is often the responsibility of the human resources function. However, depending on the context, managers may exert a degree of influence on the selection process for CCTV room staff. CCTV roles will differ across sites, and the actual job requirements should flow from the organisation’s goals and the operational requirements of the CCTV room. In line with this, the selection process should begin with a suitable examination of what the role entails via an analysis of the job.
Job Profile could be:
  1. ·        Sitting in front of a bank of up to 15 screens, constantly monitoring the live pictures that come in from the surveillance cameras
  2. ·        Operating the position of the cameras, for example if a cash machine is about to be emptied, you would focus the camera on the security guard
  3. ·        Monitoring anyone acting suspiciously, and alerting security staff or police if you see an act of theft, vandalism or any other crime
  4. ·        Monitoring cleaning staff working in large empty buildings for their safety
  5. ·        Notifying the police of any anti-social behaviour
  6. ·        Keeping a log of all incidents to pass onto police
  7. ·        Called to give evidence in court as a witness.

Job analysis:
Job analysis is designed to produce systematic and reliable information about a particular role. It provides the basis for writing an accurate job description, will assist in developing a structured interview and serve as a basis for any selection tests which might be used. The aim of the job analysis is to derive a comprehensive list of job tasks, how they are carried out and the worker characteristics – aptitudes, skills and experience – which are necessary to perform them. As well as covering the current role it is a good idea to consider how the job may change in the foreseeable future. The organisation’s human resources department may have a preferred method for carrying out job analyses. For the CCTV operator role (compared to say, a senior management role) the job analysis may not need to be very complex. Since any amount of footage from any given day could be required at any given time, properly storing footage is one of the most important roles of a CCTV Operator. Storage policy can vary slightly from company to company, but in general CCTV Operators will need to correctly catalog all footage so that it can be easily recalled at a later time.

Selection process
Once the job has been adequately defined, selection of candidates can begin. The interview is still by far the most widely used method of selection; however evidence suggests that the traditional ‘unstructured’ interview is not a particularly good predictor of job performance. Structured interviews have been found to be twice as valid (i.e. predictive of future job performance) than unstructured interviews.

Tests fall broadly into two categories. The first category includes tests of cognitive ability such as aptitude tests and tests of general mental ability (for example numerical reasoning, verbal and non-verbal reasoning, visualspatial abilities). The second consists of personality tests that aim to measure personal traits and preferences; for example a person who measures high on the trait of ‘conscientiousness’ is likely to demonstrate a reasonable level of persistence when performing a variety of tasks.

Operator Skills
Successful CCTV Operators are mindful, alert and scrupulous individuals who are highly dedicating to protecting others. In addition to having a talent for all things technical, they also have the ability to quickly identify patterns and abnormalities. In addition to these general personality traits and abilities, employers are looking for CCTV Operators with the following skills:
  1. ·        Surveillance System Knowledge: Because extensive knowledge of video surveillance systems is to crucial to the job of a CCTV Operator, many employers required CCTV Operators to have video surveillance certification of some kind.
  2. ·        Attention to Detail: CCTV Operators must be able to identify small, seemingly insignificant details that most people would overlook. This ability allows them to keep the area as safe as possible.
  3. ·        Ability to Multitask: Even when a CCTV Operator receives a phone call or has to speak to a colleague, they must always be keeping an eye on the monitors.
  4. ·        Ability to Work Independently: For the most part, CCTV Operators will not be required to interact with very many people. Because of this, it is important that they’re able to work and stay alert without constant supervision.
  5. ·        Communication Skills: Since CCTV Operators will occasionally have to give statements to police officers, communicate with emergency services or even appear in court, they need to have strong written and verbal communication skills.

Training is important for motivation and performance and should be designed to meet operational needs. Where CCTV operators are employed directly by the organization /site at which they work, there will be greater scope for influencing training in comparison to where the operator/guard force function is sub-contracted to an external organization. However, contracted operators should have received at least basic training in CCTV.
Methods for carrying out the training needs analysis include interviews, observations, focus group discussions and questionnaires with job incumbents and other stakeholders. Existing job analyses/person analyses may not be up to date so it could be worth taking a current view of the job role.
Since the exact role of a CCTV operator will differ from organisation to organisation, detailed training needs will necessarily differ. However, as a minimum, it is recommended that training should cover the areas in the following list.     
  1. ·        Induction into the CCTV role, CCTV team and the wider organization Operation of all CCTV room equipment Team building with the immediate team.
  2. ·        Detailed knowledge of camera positions and of the site(s) to be monitored – in practice this means getting out and ‘walking the plot’ wherever possible – including visits to remotely monitored sites.
  3. ·        Detailed knowledge of camera positions and of the site(s) to be monitored – in practice this means getting out and ‘walking the plot’ wherever possible – including visits to remotely monitored sites.
  4. ·        Knowledge of the current nature and level of security threat to the site(s) – Local police authority, Intelligence Bureau can provide advice on this.
  5. ·        Knowledge of the nature of unwanted or suspicious behaviors/incidents as they relate to the site.
  6. ·        Knowledge of the current nature and level of security threat to the site(s) – Local police authority, Intelligence Bureau can provide advice on this. Knowledge of the nature of unwanted or suspicious behaviors/incidents as they relate to the site.
  7. ·        Understanding of the role of relevant external teams, agencies and/or networks. It can be beneficial to operate a policy requiring operators to regularly visit members of the team who are based ‘on the ground’ in the site being monitored, or even those in related agencies or organizations.
  8. ·        Preparation for emergencies. Such training is often achieved using incident simulations / scenarios that attempt to model the conditions of a real emergency.

Spatial awareness
We find that often the 80/20 rule applies in surveillance, with about 80% of the incidents being detected by 20% of personnel. I can often see the motivation differences within the training environment as well where people committed to detection have a different philosophy. So one of the first criteria I would want in any operator who would work for me would be to be able to demonstrate a history of detection. Not ‘we detected’ which often covers up a lack of individual involvement, but ‘I detected’. By keeping an eye on them, criminals can be stopped the moment they want to perform a crime. The increased attention may even stop them in their tracks. A CCTV operator who is motivated by his or her moral values finds excessive joy in using expert skills to protect people and their possessions in public venues. Good quality cameras and monitors, along with effective placement, will allow operators to observe the environment well and support their ability to understand the location and likely direction of targets during a dynamic incident – i.e. maintain ‘spatial awareness’. Spatial awareness is an understanding of our location in space and the organisation of objects around us. What operators need to see in the environment will depend on their tasks, which should link to the operational requirements of the control room. Ideal specification and positioning of cameras is dependent on operational requirements but also on what an operator needs to complete a task successfully.

Leadership and management
Research indicates that highly motivated employees perform better and show more commitment to the organisation than unmotivated employees. The way that people are managed and led can significantly affect their perceptions about their job, and in turn their job motivation. Motivation can be a personal trait (i.e. be part of someone’s personality) but it is strongly influenced by elements of the job itself. It is also associated with the rewards a person receives from doing the job. Rewards include the personal satisfaction from a job well-done, as well as recognition from the organisation’s customers, team members and managers.
The minimum recommendation here is that first line supervisors and/or managers should receive formal leadership training which is aimed at achieving effective team and individual performance and which is appropriate for the context in which they work.

Regular appraisals help encourage employee motivation and maintain commitment. At minimum:
·      Appraisers should receive appropriate training for conducting company appraisals.
·    Appraisals should identify mutually acceptable performance and development goals. These individual goals are often linked to the goals of the team, department and/or organization
·        Appraisals may or may not be linked with rewards (including pay); however where they are linked with rewards care should be taken to ensure that the process of reward distribution is systematic and fair, and also perceived as such by all team members

The figures below are only a guide. Actual pay rates may vary, depending on:
·        where you work.
·        the size of the company or organization you work for.
·        the demand for the job.
CCTV operators can earn from around ₹ 14,500 to ₹ 15,800 per month. With experience, this could raise to ₹ 17,000 per month basis. You may get a shift allowance.

BS EN ISO 11064 books.
BS EN 50132-7 Books.
BS EN 62676-4 Books.

This artical published on safe secure magazine Volume 10-issue 1- January 2019 issue.

Sunday, January 6, 2019

PoE NVR and PoE Switch

Difference between PoE NVR and PoE Switch?

Sir “I’m going to install two IP cameras in my house. However, I have no idea whether to use a PoE NVR or a PoE switch matching with them. So, what’s the difference between them? “

Hello “Arindam sir, this is XXX from BBB, as you are security expert, I realy confused from my cctv vendor, someone quote PoE based NVR someone quote PoE switch with Normal NVR. Please suggest which technology is best for us.”

Such type of questions I face throughout 2018, which indicates many people feel confused about the selection between PoE NVR and PoE switch. This write-ups / blog intends to explore the differences between PoE NVR and PoE switch in details.
What Is PoE?
PoE, an abbreviated form of Power over Ethernet, allows a single CAT cable connecting a power sourcing equipment (PSE) to provide both data connection and electric power to powered devices (PDs) such as IP cameras, wireless access points, etc.
What Is a PoE NVR?
NVR represents for network video recorder which provides you with centralized video controls to easily view, manage, and store your surveillance footage in one convenient location. A PoE NVR is a security video recorder with built-in PoE switch designed to use with PoE-based IP cameras.

Equipped with a PoE switch, a PoE NVR recorder can deliver both data and power over a single Ethernet cable. There is no need for an additional PoE switch, which will reduce the cost of equipment in theory. You just need to connect one Ethernet cable from the camera to the PoE NVR recorder and then the built-in switch will provide power to the camera while transmitting data.

A PoE NVR is ideal for users with minimal network administration experience and is generally used in homes and small businesses. It creates a private camera network, keeping surveillance footage isolated from the main network and adding an extra layer of privacy.
What Is a PoE Switch?
A PoE switch or power over Ethernet switch, containing multiple Ethernet RJ45 ports, is a dedicated network switch with multiple Ethernet ports to connect network segments and provide power and network communications.

It expands a network created by a router. Basically, it just assigns LAN IP addresses to your camera and needs to be tied into a system that allows you to see and manage your cameras, which is usually done with video surveillance software on a computer. Therefore, it must be connected directly to a router on the same network as your NVR. It can reduce the need for extra outlets and extension cables and saves deployment cost and labor efforts as well.

Power over Ethernet switch can be classified into many types. In addition to the most common one, gigabit PoE switch, for example, there are other types as well such as unmanaged and managed PoE switches. Most PoE switches provided in the market have standard gigabit Ethernet ports which can provide speed of 10/100/1000Mbps. For smaller network, 8-port Gigabit PoE switch is very popular. For larger/enterprise network, we use 24-port PoE switch and 48-port managed switch.
Main difference between a PoE NVR & PoE Switch
From the above, you will see that both PoE NVR and PoE switch can provide power and data transmission. However, the former is limited in minimal network administration experience while the latter can expend the network freely. What’s more, a switch does not assign IP addresses, which is the job of a DHCP server, usually built into a router. PoE NVRs provide this service, while PoE switches don’t. The switch simply provides a data path between all of the devices connected to it.

Note: You cannot plug a POE switch into an NVR directly - it must be plugged into your network.

Tips of Hanwha PoE NVR 
By default, PoE NVRs are set to connect directly to IP cameras.  In cases where the PoE ports are connected to network switches, the NVR must be put in Manual mode.
In addition, the PoE ports are set to Isolated mode, where each device can only communicate only with the NVR and not each other.  This is a security feature to prevent rouge devices from accessing other devices on the network.  This will prevent a connected PC from accessing IP cameras for setup changes.
If you are uplinking non-camera devices, such as switches, media converters, PCs, etc., you must set the NVR to Manual mode.
From the setup menu of the NVR, navigate to System > System Management > Settings > Load Factory Default.
Select the Manual Setup Mode.  If you wish to save some of the settings to speed up setup, check the Not Included options of User, Camera, and/or Network as needed.

Click the Initialization button and wait for the NVR to reboot.

This Write ups published on safe secure magazine Feb 2019 issue.

Friday, December 28, 2018

Pune CCTV makes revenue from traffic violators

Pune CCTV makes revenue from traffic violators

Pune city police is the law enforcement agency with jurisdiction over 790 km2 comprising Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad cities in Maharashtra. The city police are a division of Maharashtra police. The current Pune commissioner ate came into existence on 1 July 1965. Pune city police operates from 33 police stations. It also has the responsibility of traffic policing the city roads.

The police commissioner-ate is divide into two regions, North Region and South Region. Each region is headed by an Additional Commissioner of police. Each region is divided into two zones; hence there are four Zones in Pune City vitz. Zone – 1, zone – 2, Zone – 3, Zone – 4.
Each Zone is headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP). Each Zone is further divided into two or three sub-division. Each Zone is further divided int two or three sub-divisions. Each sub-division is headed by an Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP).

Pune city surveillance, referred to as PCS, is a holistic and integrated video surveillance system for the city of Pune. The PCS System of IP based outdoor security cameras across various locations in the city of Pune. The Video surveillance data from various cameras deployed is stored at data centre and monitored at all police stations, command control centers at CP office, PMC office, PCMC office and Collectorate.
  • The system consists of total 1363 cameras
  • Fix Box Cameras are 1068
  • Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) cameras are 217
  • Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) cameras are 78

These Cameras are spread across 418 Locations along with 22 Locations for ANPR Cameras.

The live video feed from all these cameras is continuously saved and stored in the data centre which has the capacity to store the video from all the cameras up to 90 days and 180 days storing capacity for ANPR Cameras.

Following command control and viewing centers are setup for viewing the live feed from the system.
  1. Command and Control Centre at Commissioner of Police office with a viewing capacity of 150 cameras at time.
  2. Viewing centre of PMC with viewing capacity of 60 cameras at a time.
  3. Viewing centre of PCMC with viewing capacity of 25 cameras at a time.
  4. Viewing centre of Collectorate with viewing capacity of 10 cameras at a time.
  5. Viewing centre at each of the two Regional offices with capacity to view 10% of total cameras in the respective region, at a time.
  6. Viewing centre at each of the four Zonal offices with capacity to view 10% of total cameras in the respective zone, at a time.
  7. Viewing facility at each of the 40 police stations, with capacity to view 50% cameras in the respective police station jurisdiction.

Description of Components :
  1. Network and connectivity – All the surveillance equipment is connected in network, so that the video feeds are available at data centre as well as viewing centers 27X7.
  2. Data centre and applications – A data centre with high end servers with large storage facility is established, along with application servers. This center holds all the recordings from all the cameras, as well as all the monitoring applications.
  3. Command and viewing centers – the command centre is established in the CP office. Additional CP office, Zonal DCP offices, PMC, PCMC, Collectorate and Police stations have viewing centers for viewing the live video feeds from respective regions. The command centre at CP office also has video-wall for viewing. Other viewing centers have TV sets as well as workstations for effective monitoring of live video.
  4. Collaborative monitoring - The existing surveillance systems of Public and private establishments will also be integrated into PCS systems, so that in case of any incidence at these places, the video feeds will be available.
  5. Help desk and facility Management system – A system is established along with man power, to monitor and maintain the entire infrastructure. A responsive help desk with ticketing system is established so that, any fault in the system is resolved in time and the system is resorted in normal state as soon as possible.

Optimum Utilization :
  1. Maintaining Law and Order – Local commotion, Riots, Crowd gathering, Public festivals, Pubic gathering, Fire incidents.
  2. Crime investigations – Burglary, Robbery, theft, identifying people/vehicles, Harassments to shop-keepers/local people, fights, Tracing of Murders.
  3. Traffic controlling – Flow of Traffic, Density of traffic at junctions, Traffic congestion, Violation of traffic rules, Hit-and-Run cases, and Road accidents.

Support Pune Police to Maintain Law & OrderThe live video feed, 24×7 along with automatic various alerts, will enable police to understand the situation on the ground early, so that police can react in-time.
Act as an aid to investigationEntire video feed is recorded 24×7. So, any historical or past situation can be easily viewed by police.
Improve Traffic ManagementBuilt-in video analytics will generate automatic alerts for traffic violation.
Help in deterring, detecting and thus dealing with criminal activitiesContinuous display of live video, automatic alerts for crowd gathering, suspicious objects, suspicious loitering, automatic number plate recognition, will all help police to detect and deal with criminal activities efficiently.
The city traffic police collected Rs 7 crore more in 2018 as compared to the previous year after implementing the CCTV-drive e-challan system. In 2018, 2.5 lakh more violators were fined as compared to 2017, according to the information released by the Pune traffic police department.

The department took action against 18 lakh residents for traffic violations in 2018. Of these, 6.33 lakh cases were registered through the CCTV (closed-circuit television) surveillance system.

“Apart from active traffic policing, the major reason behind higher number of cases in 2018 are the CCTV’s installed across the city that captures the violations,” said Tejaswi Satpute, deputy commissioner of police (DCP), traffic.

A CCTV system captures the image of violators at traffic junctions and transmits it to the command and control centre of the traffic department through which a case is registered and fines are collected by the traffic personnel.

Residents who have violated the traffic norms can also go to the web portal ( and pay the fines by filling the required details of the vehicles. The website provides details of the case, including the photograph of the vehicles violating the traffic rules.

In 2018, the traffic department generated a revenue of Rs 44 crore in fines, higher by Rs 7 crore than collected in 2017.

Out of the total 18 lakh cases, maximum numbers of fines were imposed on those vehicles that were found violating zebra crossings. Such violations amounted to 6.12 lakh cases out of the total 18 lakh cases where people were fined Rs 200 each.

“Zebra crossings are marked with black and white stripes on the road and zigzag lines on either side warning drivers that there may be pedestrians crossing or waiting to cross the road. They also tell drivers that they must give way to pedestrians on the crossing. However, people still violate these basic rules which results into taking actions against them,” said Satpute.
Due to the use of technology, we have the past records of traffic violations which have helped us to fine the offenders. We are now in a position that we can give the exact time and details about the traffic violations. Every day between 3 pm and 7 pm we conduct a drive across the city where we collect pending fines from violators using the records that we have with us – said traffic constable. 
At Nagpur, From October 6, 2016 and April 2, 2018, as many as 4,49,568 motorists were caught on mobile cameras breaking traffic rules. Of them, e-challans were already issued to 4,15,024 and fines too were recovered from them. The move has actually gone well as many motorists started following rules. The number of two-wheelers using helmets too have increased manifold.
Read Artical: ANPR