Saturday, January 26, 2013

How fiber optic cabling combined with PoE converters allows long-distance IP camera placement

Power over Ethernet (PoE) technology enables powering IP surveillance cameras through the transfer of DC electrical power along with data over standard unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling. This cabling connects to a network device through an RJ-45 port that injects the power from power sourcing equipment such as a PoE switch or midspan PoE injector. PoE provides a flexible and convenient means of powering devices that are located in out-of-the-way locations, and saves money by eliminating the expense and difficulty of direct electrical wiring. A challenge with PoE is reaching remote locations outside the distance limitation of UTP cabling. According to the TIA/EIA 568-5-A standard for category 5e cable, the maximum length for a cable segment is 100 meters (328 ft), and PoE power injectors or midspans do not increase the distance of the data link.

So, how do you get beyond that 100-meter limit? Once answer is through fiber optics. Fiber optic cabling is an effective method to overcome the distance and bandwidth limitations of UTP, and media converters are a commonly used to integrate copper network equipment and fiber. Since DC power cannot be conducted over fiber, PoE media converters are the solution to extend network distances via fiber to remote IP cameras. A PoE media converter converts the fiber to copper, and sends DC power to the camera over the UTP cabling.

How PoE Media Converters Work
On the main article image/PoE schematic that appears at right, an Ethernet switch with RJ-45 ports resides in a control room or data closet. The copper UTP cabling is converted to fiber with a standard media converter. The fiber is run a long distance to the PoE media converter located near a convenient AC or DC power source, where it converts the fiber back to copper UTP. The PoE media converter also functions as a power-sourcing mini switch, and injects PoE (DC power) over the UTP cable. At the other end of the UTP cable is the IP camera, located up to 100 meters away from the PoE media converter.
PoE media converters are available with Gigabit Ethernet and Fast Ethernet data rates and can support PoE (15.4 watts) or PoE+ (25.5 watts). PoE media converters function like PoE mini-switches, and are available in a variety of multi-port configurations, including dual RJ-45 and dual fiber ports. They can support fixed fiber connectors or small form pluggable transceivers.
To understand those power specifications, it’s worth knowing that in 2003, the IEEE ratified the 802.3af PoE Standard. That standard provides up to 15.4 watts of power per port. Late in 2009, the IEEE ratified the 802.3at PoE Standard known as PoE+ that provides up to 25.5 watts of power for each port. PoE+ can be required to power IP cameras with Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) / Speed Dome Camera capabilities, and weather-hardened cameras used in cold environments that feature blowers and de-icers.

Leverage the Benefits of Fiber
There are several solutions available to extend the distances of PoE network links, including LAN extenders that convert Ethernet to DSL, UTP to coax converters and wireless technology. When you’re going long distance, however, fiber optic cabling provides several advantages over these technologies.
Unlike copper, fiber extends network distances up to 87 miles (140 kilometers) per link with no data deterioration over distance (signal deterioration is to be expected in copper cabling). LAN extenders can only extend network distances about 3,300 feet, but a data rate of 100 Mbps can drop by 70 percent at longer distances.
Fiber cabling provides security benefits as well. It is a secure medium that generates no electro-magnetic emission and is very difficult to tap. Fiber is also very reliable because it is not susceptible to electrical interference, or data loss due to temperature or atmospheric conditions.

Wednesday, January 23, 2013

Analysis and Comparison of 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G and 6G Telecom Services

Until the controversial spectrum scams were brought up in the lime light many were ignorant of what 1G, 2G or 3G stood for and all of a sudden a hike was found out amongst laymen so as to be knowledgeable about it. Still a number of people are unaware of 1G or 2G when the world has moved on to 4G.

The telecommunication service in World had a great leap within a last few year. . 6 billion people own a mobile phones so we are going to analyze the various generations of cellular systems as studied in the evolution of mobile communications from 1st generation to 5th generation .Now almost all the service providers as well as the customers seek for availing these 3G and 4G services.

We can analyze that this could be due to increase in the telecoms customers day by day. In the present time, there are four generations in the mobile industry. These are respectively 1G the first generation, 2G the second generation, 3G the third generation, and then the 4G the forth generation. Ericson a Swedish company is launching this high tech featured mobile into the market. It is being first introduced in the Swedish Capital city, Stockholm.

Present Status of Telecommunication Services in Asian Countries

Now we are in the midst of 4G. In China, the 3G service came into existence only by last February. Therefore, that it may take time for exposing to other states. But we should also realize many other countries such as the Asian countries were using these services since last decade. Due to these reasons, we can hope that the 4G may enter within a few years. The 3G (Third Generation) had also reached India recently. There is no doubt that within a few years India will be the first in telecom users also.

What is 2G ?

Second Generation (2G) wireless cellular mobile services was a step ahead of First Generation( 1G) services by providing the facility of short message service(SMS) unlike 1G that had its prime focus on verbal communication. A typical 2G G.S.M network service ranges from 800/900MHz or 1800/1900 spectrum. The bandwidth of 2G is 30-200 KHz.

Let us examine what these 3G & 4G have rather than that of 1G and 2G.

Analysis of 1G and 2G services

In 1G, Narrow band analogue wireless network is used, with this we can have the voice calls and can send text messages. These services are provided with circuit switching. Today’s the usual call starts from the beginning pulse to rate to the final rate. Then in case of 2G Narrow Band Wireless Digital Network is used. It brings more clarity to the conversation and both these circuit-switching model.

Both the 1G and 2G deals with voice calls and has to utilize the maximum bandwidth as well as a limited till sending messages i.e. SMS. The latest technologies such as GPRS, is not available in these generations. But the greatest disadvantage as concerned to 1G is that with this we could contact with in the premises of that particular nation, where as in case of 2G the roaming facility a semi-global facility is available.

2.5 Generation

In between 2G and 3G there is another generation called 2.5G. Firstly, this mid generation was introduced mainly for involving latest bandwidth technology with addition to the existing 2G generation. To be frank but this had not brought out any new evolution and so had not clicked to as much to that extend.

What is 3G Generation

But to overcome the limitations of 2G and 2.5G the 3G had been introduced. In this 3G Wide Brand Wireless Network is used with which the clarity increases and gives the perfection as like that of a real conversation. The data are sent through the technology called Packet Switching .Voice calls are interpreted through Circuit Switching. It is a highly sophisticated form of communication that has come up in the last decade.

In addition to verbal communication it includes data services, access to television/video, categorizing it into triple play service. 3G operates at a range of 2100MHz and has a bandwidth of 15-20MHz. High speed internet service, video chatting are the assets of 3G.

How is 2G different from 3G?

  • In comparison to 2G customers will have to pay a relatively high license fee for 3G.
  • The network construction and maintenance for 3G is much expensive than 2G.
  • From the point of view of customers, expenditure will be excessively high if they make access to various facets of 3G.

What is Packet Switching

This is actually done by supplying various addressed packets, which will be interconnected to have the conversation. It is not necessary to create a new dedicated path for sending the data. It had been modified in such a way that the data can be send through any path; hence, this data will be received at a less time as compared to that of voice calls.

Packet Switching in Computer networks

The data packs are also used in computer that is when we connected with internet this data pack helps to download the web pages that is being displayed in the monitor. For a Data Pack it does not need any separate path for downloading or displaying any objects in the computer or any other equipment. This is due to the reason that by networking, separate paths are being created and after analyzing each, the data are being transferred to the correct access point.

Main 3G Services

With the help of 3G, we can access many new services too. One such service is the GLOBAL ROAMING. Another thing to be noted in case of 3G is that Wide Band Voice Channel that is by this the world has been contracted to a little village because a person can contact with other person located in any part of the world and can even send messages too. Then the point to be noted is that 3G gives clarity of voice as well can talk with out any disturbance. Not only these but also have entertainments such as Fast Communication, Internet, Mobile T.V, Video Conferencing, Video Calls, Multi Media Messaging Service (MMS), 3D gaming, Multi-Gaming etc are also available with 3G phones.

Main 4G Features

When It is still to estimate as to how many number of people have moved on from 2G to 3G , technology has come up with the latest of its type namely 4G.A successor of 2G and 3G, 4G promises a downloading speed of 100Mbps and is yet to shower its wonders on. then with the case of Fourth Generation that is 4G in addition to that of the services of 3G some additional features such as Multi-Media Newspapers, also to watch T.V programs with the clarity as to that of an ordinary T.V. In addition, we can send Data much faster that that of the previous generations.

What is the reason for delay in implementing 3G and 4G Mobile services?

It is very sad to say that the 3G services had only reached with in some towns of china, so that it may take time to reach to Other countries. Another major defect of this is that Wide Band Frequency Spectrum, which is needed for 3G, is lacking. Another reason for this is that it a cost bearing item especially for sending data. So for us it is a higher one which could be used only by upper classes. If it should be accepted among all customers, firstly it should be availed at a lower rate, for which the rate of spectrum should be declined.

What is 5G Technology

5G Technology stands for 5th Generation Mobile technology. 5G mobile technology has changed the means to use cell phones within very high bandwidth. User never experienced ever before such a high value technology. Nowadays mobile users have much awareness of the cell phone (mobile) technology. The 5G technologies include all type of advanced features which makes 5G mobile technology most powerful and in huge demand in near future.

The gigantic array of innovative technology being built into new cell phones is stunning. 5G technology which is on hand held phone offering more power and features than at least 1000 lunar modules. A user can also hook their 5G technology cell phone with their Laptop to get broadband internet access. 5G technology including camera, MP3 recording, video player, large phone memory, dialing speed, audio player and much more you never imagine. For children rocking fun Bluetooth technology and Piconets has become in market.

What is 6G technology ?

1. Increase performance and maximize your data throughput and IOPS
2. Protect your system and secure your data
3. Ease your service and build efforts and expand your data center configuration options

The 6G technology haven't been fully revealed yet but the search phrases like what is 6g mobile technology, 6G technology, 6G mobile, 6G network, 6G wiki, 6G technology ppt are getting more familiar with new mobile technology getting evolved. The Google hot trends has rated the term 6g as the 17th most searched word in the search engines. iPod nano 6G is available in 8GB and 16GB versions and carries the price tag of $149 and $179 respectively.

Tuesday, January 22, 2013

New Security Design Guidelines for Healthcare Facilities

The International Healthcare Security & Safety Foundation (IHSS) has released the 2012 edition of the Security Design Guidelines for Healthcare Facilities. The guidelines are intended to be used by security and design professionals for renovations and new construction.

“In comparing the International Association for Healthcare Security & Safety (IAHSS) Basic Industry Guidelines with the Healthcare Facility Design Guidelines, readers should be aware that the Basic Industry Guidelines are more operationally focused and less prescriptive,” the guidelines claim. “By their nature, the Design Guidelines are more prescriptive and developed to assist security leaders, design professionals and planning staff to build security into each new construction and renovation project.

“By reasonably addressing security risks up front and early on during design, organizations can cost effectively address the safety and security of new or renovated space. These steps will help reduce the potential for security features either not being designed into new space or added on as an afterthought, or becoming 'value engineered' out as projects face limited budget dollars. The intent of integrating these guidelines early in the design process is to emphasize the importance, incorporate the work into other aspects of the project and ultimately to avoid expensive change orders, retrofits or other liabilities incurred by the omission of appropriate planning for a safe and secure environment.”