Tuesday, November 29, 2011

What is the NTSC and PAL Setting On DVR?

Many DVRs are compatible with both NTSC and PAL standards. NTSC standard is predominately in North America and PAL in Europe. The PAL and NTSC standard actually refer to the method used to transmit color. The PAL standard actually requires 2 NTSC decoders to display video (one for each line alternatively) while the NTSC standard only requires one. The NTSC standard is supposedly less accurate in color display, but more efficient in the use of resources. In general, the DVR can be set to either decode NTSC cameras or PAL cameras, but not a combination of both at the same time. If you order a DVR in a package with the security cameras, then you shouldn’t have to worry about the setting or compatibility. If, on the other hand you purchase your cameras from one country, and the DVR from another, then you definitely should make sure that the DVR is compatible with the cameras. Check the standard of the cameras (NTSC or PAL) and the standard of the DVR. Remember that you cannot mix and match the cameras.

Also, keep in mind that just because you are in the USA does not mean you cannot have a PAL DVR or PAL cameras, or because you are in Europe does not mean you cannot have NTSC cameras or DVR. In actuality, you only need to be sure that the cameras and DVR are both compatible.

Splitting / Amplifying the Video Signal

 Keep in mind the video signal used in CCTV equipment is nominally a one volt peak-to-peak signal and is impedance sensitive to 75 ohms for ideal video reproduction at the monitor. If these parameters are not kept, then the video will degrade.

Distribution Amplification

If the installation of a system requires viewing the video at multiple locations from a single camera, there are a few different ways of accomplishing this. One way is through using a distribution amplifier. This device basically takes the single video signal and reproduces the exact signal into multiple outputs; and in the case of the Pelco DA104DT you would get four identical outputs.
So, if the input signal is a one volt peak-to-peak signal you will get four output signals of the same amplitude. Providing the run distance for the type of coax used is kept within the specified length, no other equipment will be needed to reproduce a nice clear video display on each monitor. Another timesaving feature of the Pelco DA104DT is that there are not adjustments required. Just connect the unit, turn it on, and the installation is complete. If the need arises where more than four signals are required, multiple units can be linked together by simply using one of the output signals as an input signal to the next unit, and so on.

Equalizing Amplification

Due to the many factors that can effect the video signal, it is sometimes necessary to enhance the video signal (as in transmitting a nominal video signal level) directly out of the camera, through RG59 coax to a monitor, while still producing a clear video display across the entire length of the coax. In this case the coax should not exceed 750 feet (228 m).
However, let's say you need to use RG59 because it's more flexible and much easier to work with but the cable length must be 1,500 feet (457 m). The signal at this point is going to be weak and will display a very degraded picture on the monitor. As mentioned, there are many things that can effect signal strength before the signal reaches the monitor. If you find a weak signal, simply pass the weak signal through an equalizing amplifier, make the required adjustments, and once again there will be a good, strong signal that will produce a nice picture.
The Pelco model EA2010 is a post-equalizing amplifier which simply means that this device will be located close to the monitor. There's an advantage to this design in that AC power is usually more readily available at the monitoring location than it is somewhere back up the coax line, and with this type of design it only requires one person to view the monitor display while at the same time making the required adjustments to obtain the nominal signal level.
As mentioned in the example on RG59,the signal strength is good up to nominally 750 feet (228 m). With the Pelco EA2010 amplifying the signal, the same grade of coax can be used in runs of up to 3,000 feet (914 m).
In regard to any equalizing amplification system, there is another type of post-equalizing amplifier that Pelco offers. It is the half-duplex post-equalizing amplifier. This device (as far as the amplification of the video signal is concerned) is exactly like the EA2010.The difference is that the EA2000 was designed specifically for use with any of the Pelco Coaxitron (up-the-coax) control/transmitter systems. This device enables the video signal requiring amplification to be transmitted over the same coaxial cable over which the control signal is transmitted, whereas if you used the EA2010 it would block the Coaxitron control signal from being transmitted.

Wednesday, November 9, 2011

Video compression for DVR in CCTV systems

Advantage of using a DVR technology over analog recording is that the Digital Data recorded by DVR can be compressed and saved in special hard disk and can be reviewed later. Video compression plays an important role in overall operation, properly compressed video can also save disk space.
All DVRs use some kind of compression algorithm called a codec to keep the digital video files at a manageable size. The average size of an uncompressed still image frame at 320x240 resolution in 24-bit true color is about 230400 Byte or 2.3 Mega Byte. Same image frame in 32 bit color is about 307200 Byte or 3.07 Mega Byte.

An hour’s worth of one channel of uncompressed video at 25 frames per second would take up 21,600 megabytes (21.6 GB)

Uncompressed video of one hour will take hard disk space

Frame size 320*240 Pixel at 25 frames per second would take up
25*3600* 230400 Byte = 20736 Mega bytes
= 20.736 GB (24 bit color)
25*3600* 307200 Byte = 27648 Mega bytes
= 27.648 GB (32 bit color)